(Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis) is a procedure of refractive surgery that aims to improve a person's visual acuity by changing the shape (reshaping) of the cornea so that rays coming parallel to the eyeball are focused right on the retina and no longer need to wear glasses or contact lenses.
Development of Laser Vision Correction Methods
1. Photorefractive Keratektomy (PRK)
PRK is a refractive surgery procedure that involves peeling off the outer layer of the cornea (epithelium) and thinning the stromal layer with laser light. A bandage contact lens will be placed on the eye until the outer corneal layer (epithelium) grows back within a few days. This method is still practiced today.
LASIK (Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis) is performed by creating an opening on the surface of the cornea (flap) and an excimer laser to correct the refractive error.
The first stage used the Microkeratome (Blade) technique, where the flap was created manually with very small surgical instruments. The flap creation process was later developed using the Femtosecond Laser, also called bladeless laser surgery.
The second stage is laser irradiation on the inside of the cornea to reshape the cornea after the flap is opened. The aim is to remove refractive errors with the Excimer Laser.
Until now, LASIK is still popularly performed to cure refractive errors. LASIK is safe, comfortable, and healing is relatively quick.
3. SMILE (Small Incision Lenticule Extraction)
The latest laser vision correction technologies are SMILE and SMILE Pro. This method can correct refractive errors without the need to create a flap in the cornea as is commonly done. In SMILE, the femtosecond laser works directly inside the Stromal layer of the cornea to form a lenticule according to the size of the refractive error. The laser beam then makes a small incision of about 2-4mm for the lenticule to be removed. The healing process becomes much faster and the action only takes a few seconds. After the surgery, vision will be optimal within a few days.
1. Patients aged 18 years and over.
2. Stable eye refractive error within the last one year.
3. Eyes are in good health.
4. Not wearing soft lenses for at least 14 consecutive days, or not wearing hard lenses for 30 days.
5. Willing to re-control after the action is taken.
The operation takes no more than 10–15 minutes, does not cause pain for the patient, and the exposure to the laser beam lasts no more than 30 seconds. This action does not require hospitalization, the action is carried out under local anesthesia, so the patient remains conscious.
1. The patient's eye health will be examined by an ophthalmologist.
2. Patient data will be entered into the computer and the computer will automatically process the amount of refractive error that can be corrected by calculating the number of laser beams needed.
3. The day before the operation, you are required not to use cream, lotion, make up or perfume.
1. The patient is asked to rest for 2-3 hours, then his visual acuity will be checked before being sent home.
2. Sufferers are asked to wear dops or temporary protective glasses.
3. The doctor will give eye drops and pain relievers
4. The patient is asked for control the next day, and routine control according to the specified schedule.
Possible Side Effects
1. All surgeries will have side effects, but side effects from Lasik are almost non-existent, sometimes there is pain during the healing process, generally it lasts a day after the Lasik procedure, therefore the patient is given painkillers.
2. It is possible that there are still refractive errors, generally a repeat LASIK correction can be done a few months later which is caused by over-correction / over-correction; under correction / less correction, regression or refractive errors reappear.
3. There is also the possibility that repeated LASIK corrections cannot be carried out due to the condition of the patient's cornea. So that patients still need glasses or contact lenses, to achieve maximum sharpness.
4. If you already wear close glasses, after Lasik surgery you still need reading glasses.
5. Patients with good visual acuity can sometimes still experience glare, halos or double vision at night, or visual acuity may also decrease when looking at dim light or in foggy weather, after Lasik surgery.
6. Some patients after LASIK complain of dry eyes, so they may need moisturizing eye drops forever, or tear duct plugs if necessary.
7. Other complications that may occur are infection, corneal abnormalities such as corneal erosion, epithelial ingrowth.
8. In PRK, there is a possibility of haze (fogging) on the cornea if it is exposed to ultraviolet light too often.
9. Long-term use of Flumetholone can cause an increase in intraocular pressure so that patients must comply with control regulations.