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"Dr. YAP"
Eye Hospital

Sub Specialty Services / Refraction




People who have problems with eye refraction will complain that their vision is blurry when they see objects that are far away, close up, or both. Eye refraction is a term to describe the process by which light enters the eye until it is captured by the retina The process of seeing begins with the reflection of light from an object that is captured by the eye. When light enters the eye, the lens and cornea will adjust the reflection of the light so that it is focused precisely on the retina of the eye. If the eye's refraction works well, then the quality of vision will be clear and focused (not blurry). Refractive disorders of the eye occur when light falls in front of or behind the retina, causing blurred vision. Not only that, this condition is also caused by changes in the shape of the cornea or aging of the eye lens

Types of refractive errors of the eye

1. Farsightedness

Sufferers of nearsightedness or myopia can clearly see objects that are close, but have difficulty seeing objects that are far away. This condition occurs because light entering the eye falls in front of the retina. Severe myopia can increase the risk of retinal detachment, cataracts and glaucoma

2. Farsightedness

Farsightedness is the opposite of myopia. People who are nearsighted or hypermetropic can see objects that are far away clearly, but have difficulty seeing objects that are close up. This condition makes sufferers find it difficult to read writing that is close to the eye. Farsightedness occurs when light entering the eye falls behind the retina. Farsightedness can also cause eye muscle tension, so sufferers get dizzy and have headaches easily

3. Cylindrical eyes

Astigmatism can occur together with nearsightedness or farsightedness. Cylindrical eyes or astigmatism is a visual disorder that occurs due to defects in the cornea or lens curvature. This condition causes vision to become blurred or shaded, both when looking at objects that are close or far away

4. Old eyes

Old eye or presbyopia is a condition that occurs because the lens of the eye becomes stiff, making it difficult to refract and focus light on the retina of the eye. The stiffness of the eye lens occurs due to the aging process. This condition is naturally experienced by the elderly or adults aged over 45 years

In addition to the several types of refractive errors above, the eyes can also experience refractive errors called anisometropia. This is a condition in which the refractive ability of the right eye and left eye is very different. This eye refraction disorder makes the sufferer have to frequently squint to see an object and his vision feels shaded.

Signs of Eye Refractive Disorders

1. Blurred or ghosted vision

2. Seeing a halo around bright lights

3. Difficulty focusing when reading a book or looking at the computer

4. Often squints when looking

5. Headache

6. Eyes feel tense

(source : www.alodokter.com)